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The stub Father is for a link to the the proved or presumed biological father. See Links for information about entering links to names that contain periods, commas, apostrophes, other special characters, or lowercase parts. Values other than a link to a person are Unknown (unknown at the time), and Anonymous when some agency may have known at the time, but records are not avail. Anonymous may be modified by stubs at the next level with information about an agency and code numbers which some agencies release.
DNA testing is becoming more common in genealogical research and for other purposes. Typical genealogical testing uses Y-chromosome DNA for testing in the male line (and mitochondrial DNA for the female line). If the presumed biological is in male line as determined by Y-chromosome testing, he will be considered proved as the father although there is a possibility of his brothers, his father, his paternal uncles, and so forth being the actual father. DNA testing for other purposes uses more than the Y-chromosome and can narrow conclusions to an individual with uncertainty of only a few parts in hundreds of millions.
When paternity is proved by DNA, the Father stub should have a stub on the next level of Proved which takes no value, but may have details below. Example:
with further details concerning publication following.
Other stubs under Father could be Disputed, when denied by one or more parties at the time; Doubted, when questions are raised by heirs or researchers removed from events, Posthumous, which says nothing concerning the certainty of paternity, and Donor. The default Presumed, as for example the husband of the mother, does not need to be entered.
A male person assuming parental responsibilities in a household when different from the Father is entered with the Parent stub. As many parents as necessary to describe the situation may be entered.
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